What is microprocessor?

What is microprocessor:

Think of a Microprocessor as the brain of a computer. Do you know how your brain helps you think, remember things, and control your body?

Well, a microprocessor does something similar for a computer. It is a small but extremely powerful part inside the computer that helps it perform all kinds of tasks like running programs, playing games and browsing the internet.

Just like your brain helps you do homework, play games, and chat with friends, a microprocessor helps a computer do its job! What is microprocessor?

What is microprocessor?

What is microprocessor in computer?

Imagine a microprocessor as the brain of a computer. Just as your brain helps you think, learn, and make decisions, a microprocessor helps a computer do all its work.

It is a small but super smart part inside the computer that performs many important tasks very quickly. It’s what enables your computer to run programs, play games, and do all the good things you use it for! What is microprocessor?

What is microprocessor and microcontroller?

Here’s a simple explanation of microprocessors and microcontrollers:


  1. Microprocessor is brain of the computer.
  2. It is a small chip that processes instructions and performs calculations.
  3. It is the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer system.
  4. Microprocessors are commonly found in desktop computers, laptops, and servers.
  5. They are designed for general-purpose computing tasks and are highly flexible. What is microprocessor?


  1. A microcontroller is like a mini computer mounted on a chip.
  2. It integrates the CPU, memory, and I/O peripherals into a single package.
  3. Microcontrollers are used in  systems such as home appliances, systems, and electronic gadgets.
  4. They are designed for specific tasks and are often optimized for low-power operation.
  5. Microcontrollers typically have built-in features such as timers, serial communication ports, and analog-to-digital converters, making them suitable for controlling hardware devices. What is microprocessor?

What is interrupt in microprocessor?

An interrupt in a microprocessor is a mechanism that allows the processor to temporarily suspend the current execution of instructions to handle a higher-priority task. Here’s an analysis:

Definition: An interrupt is a signal that causes the microprocessor to stop whatever it is doing and pay attention to a specific event or request.

Types of interference:

External interrupts: These are generated by external devices, such as sensors or input/output devices, to attract the attention of the processor.

Internal interrupts: These are generated internally by the processor to signal exceptional conditions such as divide-by-zero errors or invalid memory accesses.


  1. Interrupts allow the microprocessor to respond quickly to real-time events without constantly polling external devices. What is microprocessor?
  2. They facilitate multitasking and efficient use of system resources by enabling the processor to handle multiple tasks simultaneously.

Handling Disruptions:

  1. When an interrupt  the microprocessor temporarily suspends  execution of the current program.
  2. It stores the current state of the program, including program counters and processor registers, in memory or a particular location.
  3. The processor then executes an interrupt service routine (ISR) or interrupt handler, which is a predefined routine responsible for handling interrupts.
  4. After servicing the interrupt, the processor restores the saved state & resumes execution of the interrupted program.


  1. Interrupts can have different priority levels, allowing the processor to handle higher-priority interrupts before lower-priority interrupts.
  2. Priority levels ensure that critical tasks are addressed immediately while maintaining system responsiveness and efficiency. What is microprocessor?

What is 8085 microprocessor?

The 8085 microprocessor is  8-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1976. Here’s an overview:


  • The 8085 microprocessor has an 8-bit data bus and a 16-bit address bus, allowing it to address up to 64 KB of memory.
  • It has a basic instruction set with 74 instructions, including arithmetic, logic, data transfer, and control transfer instructions.
  • The architecture consists of various registers such as the accumulator (A), general purpose registers (B, C, D, E, H, L), program counter (PC), and stack pointer (SP).

Clock speed:

  • The original 8085 microprocessor operated at a clock speed of 3 MHz.
  • Later versions and clones may operate at different clock speeds. What is microprocessor?

Instruction set:

  • The instruction set of 8085 microprocessor includes data manipulation instructions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logical and/or/XOR operations, etc.
  • It also includes control transfer instructions such as branch, subroutine call, return, and conditional jump.
  • Input/Output instructions facilitate communication with external devices.


  • The 8085 microprocessor found wide use in a variety of applications, including early personal computers, embedded systems, industrial control systems, and educational purposes.
  • It played an important role in the development of early microprocessor-based systems and laid the foundation for later microprocessor architectures.


  • While newer and more advanced microprocessors have largely replaced the 8085 in modern applications, it remains an essential part of computing history.
  • It served as a cornerstone in the development of microprocessor technology and contributed to the proliferation of computing devices in the late 20th century. What is microprocessor?

What is opcode in microprocessor?

In a microprocessor, an opcode (operation code) is a binary code that represents a specific operation or instruction to be executed by the processor. Here’s an analysis:


  • Opcode is a part of the machine language instruction format that tells the processor which operation to perform.
  • It is usually represented as a binary number or series of bits.
  • Each opcode corresponds to a particular operation, such as an arithmetic, logical, data transfer, or control transfer operation.

Instruction set:

  • The collection of all possible opcodes forms the instruction set of the microprocessor.
  • The instruction set defines the range of operations that the processor can perform and the format of each instruction. What is microprocessor?


  • In most microprocessors, the opcode is combined with additional bits that specify operands, addressing mode, and other parameters necessary for the instruction.
  • The opcode is usually located at the beginning or in a specific location within the instruction format to facilitate decoding by the processor.


  • When the processor fetches an instruction from memory, it interprets the opcode to determine the operation to be performed.
  • Depending on the opcode, the processor performs the corresponding operation, possibly accessing operands from registers, memory locations or input/output devices.


  • For example, in the 8085 microprocessor, the opcode “ADD” can be represented by the binary code 1000, indicating an addition operation.
  • Different combinations of bits within the opcode and instruction format specify variations of operation, such as source and destination operands or addressing modes. What is microprocessor?

What is bus in microprocessor?

In microprocessor context, “bus” refers to a communications system that transfers data between various components within a computer system. Here’s an analysis:


  • A bus is a collection of parallel wires or conductors that carry electrical signals representing data, addresses, and control signals between different parts of a microprocessor and other connected devices.

Types of buses:

Data bus: It carries data between the microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices. The width (in bits) of the data bus determines the maximum amount of data that can be transferred in a single operation. What is microprocessor?

Address Bus: It carries memory addresses generated by the microprocessor to specify the location of data in the memory or input/output device. The width of the address bus determines the maximum memory capacity that the microprocessor can address.

Control bus: It carries control signals that coordinate the operation of the microprocessor and other connected devices. Control signals include signals indicating whether to read or write an operand. What is microprocessor?

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